蓝光,睡眠,癌症:为什么晚上要避免电子屏

  

蓝光为什么伤害眼睛?

http://www.kedo.gov.cn/ask/bkwd/yxjk/384374.shtml


自然界中的白光由红、橙、黄、绿、青、蓝、紫这七种颜色组成,理论上,如果光线够强,我们看得够久,光线都可能对视力造成巨大的伤害。那为何要强调蓝光对视力的损害?

 

  这就要谈到眼球的结构了,光进入眼睛,被视觉细胞内的分子吸收,引起光化学反应,从而产生视觉。同时光也是引起视细胞损害的原因,尤其是波长为400nm~500nm的青、蓝、紫等光线波长短的蓝色光。实验发现,可见光谱中短波光的光子能量比长波光子的能量大,容易被某些生物大分子吸收。分子吸收光子后,处于能量较高的激发态;激发态的生物大分子和其他分子相互作用,会在视网膜中产生活性氧和自由基,引起视网膜中的光化学损伤,导致细胞功能退化并凋亡。这些损害大多是不可恢复的。

1

  这里所谓蓝色光,通常指波长为400nm~500nm的电磁波,这个波段的电磁波进入人眼,就给人蓝色的感觉。实际上,不同波长的蓝色光,其效果也不完全相同。研究表明,蓝色光能提高人在白天的注意力,改善人的心情。但是,晚上长时间曝露在蓝色光中就会给大脑减少分泌褪黑素(melatonin)的信号。褪黑素是大脑中的松果体产生的一种生物化学物质,这种物质的功能是调节人的生物节律:白天活动,晚上睡觉。缺少褪黑素就要打乱人的昼夜节律,会造成失眠等症状。长时间曝露在蓝色光成分较强的LED灯下,或长时间注视电视屏或各种荧光屏就容易造成失眠。还有人认为,如果长时间在蓝色光成分强的光照环境中,有可能会影响人的心理健康。

 

  然而我们的眼球中晶状体对于波长为400nm~500nm的青、蓝、紫等光线几乎无阻挡作用,这些短波光束可顺利透过晶状体直达视网膜黄斑部,在强光的照射下,视网膜容易产生自由基,从而导致视网膜色素上皮细胞衰亡,进而导致光敏细胞缺少养分引起视力损伤,直接对眼部神经造成损伤。眼睛的角膜、晶状体和玻璃体都会吸收一定数量的蓝色光,可以保护视网膜少受蓝光的侵害。但是,晶状体吸收了蓝光,会加速变浑浊的过程,这又会加速老年白内障的生成。

 

  曾有人将老鼠曝露于404nm的蓝光下15分钟,控制光的强度,以不引起热损伤为度,以此来研究老鼠视网膜中视觉分子的化学变化。结果发现蓝光会引起视网膜的长期光化学损害,抑制细胞的新陈代谢,并且阻碍身体给光感受器提供营养,导致视网膜恶变。另外有一组研究人员对老鼠的实验也发现,403nm的蓝色光会损害老鼠眼睛的感光细胞,而550nm的黄色光则不会引起损害。

 

  其实,当眼睛曝露在很强的光中,无论其波长如何,都会造成眼睛的一些部分尤其是视网膜的损害。短暂曝露在强光中,会造成直接的热损伤。即使光并不很强,只要曝光的时间过长,也会在视网膜细胞中产生有害的光化学反应,最终造成视网膜不可恢复的损伤。这就是视网膜的光化学损害。所以为了保护眼睛,我们应当尽量避免长时间在强光下工作,减少面对各种荧光屏的时间。适当使用防护眼镜也是保护眼睛的一种方法。例如在很强的太阳光下使用墨镜,长时间观看荧光屏时,可以戴用略带黄色、吸收蓝光较多的护目眼镜。



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Paleo Diet, Body By Science, Survival and Replication

Chenyen Lee, flied

Owen Cook在各影片中講到

好幾本書  有幾本我看過的爛書

有幾本沒中譯的如 Younger You

講到了健康飲食和重訓

講到 ——>  重點來了  ——>  年輕

昨天跟女同事吃完飯

然後回去繼續放Owen Cook的影片

忽然頓悟 ( again)

(自己覺得又進步了)

Mystery: Survival & Replication

所以  (敲桌)  如果  (敲桌)

想勸親近的人  或是  操縱人   或想  說服人

Paleo Diet或 High Intensity Training

不能說會健康 、長壽

統計數字沒用     沒有用       沒有屁用    沒有洨用

剛看看到名人得癌  維持1天

看到名人重病者   維持3天

親戚朋友重病死亡  維持5天

要說   年輕  、  美麗 、 性 吸 引 力    (而這是事實)

對已經過了20歲的人

沒有人願意讓青春離自己遠去

性吸引力

50歲女性仍然會想擦保養品來維持皮膚光澤

20、30歲女生動整形美容手術

多到他媽的不行

有效果   但你仍然看得出來她幾歲這騙不了人(我)

所以如果你告訴她Paleo Diet、 High Intensity Training  能夠維持年輕

絕對比說健康有用

原始人現代人會刺青、抽煙、飆車 來吸引異性

追有男友、配偶的女生引來殺生之禍

原始腦驅使我們做各式各樣不健康、危險、蠢風險來讓DNA延續

你只是DNA暫時的宿主

DNA希望你能夠吸引身材好的年輕正妹來繁衍

而他的設計

不包含管你能不能健康活到40歲

有技巧的說服操控人

你開心、我開心、大家都開心

Live Forever、  So Young ….

Survival & Replication   and…..    Attraction is not a choice

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Paleo Mooncakes

健康月饼馅料做法!

Studio Snacks

For daily Studio Snacks updates including upcoming posts, tips & tricks and an incomprehensible amount of fried egg posts, please follow me over at my Instagram: @studiosnacks !

I’ve missed eating mooncakes for the last three years as I’ve been away from my family at College in Baltimore. I decided to make these while I was still in NYC with my family over the summer to share with my parents and older brother before the official date of the Mid-Autumn/Lunar Festival, which is Monday, September 8 this year (2014). I kinda just came up with this recipe as I went along with assembling the ingredients, and didn’t know what to quite expect. Realistically speaking, there’s no way these mooncakes will ever taste as rich as our family (and probably 95% of Hong Kong)’s preferred brand, Wing Wah, because the real deal simply can’t be replaced— But I love paying homage to…

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母亲的疾病对孩子的皮肤有益

The children of women with untreated worm infections while pregnant had fewer cases of eczema, lending further credence to the \”hygiene hypothesis\” that says some immune challenges may have long-term benefits. Cynthia Graber comments

怀孕期间患有蠕虫感染疾病,并未得到治疗的母亲所生的婴儿,很少会得湿疹。这增加了“一些对免疫系统的考验也许会让人长期受益”这个“卫生学假说”的可信度。 Can we be too clean? According to what’s called the hygiene hypothesis, yes. Without being challenged as kids, our immune systems don’t flourish. Scientists think it could be part of the rise of allergies and asthma.

我们真的太干净了吗?根据所谓的卫生学假说,是的。如果不在小孩的时候就经受考验,我们的免疫系统是不会强大起来的。科学家们认为,这可能是过敏类和哮喘类疾病发病率上升的原因之一。 Now a new study supports the hygiene hypothesis: infants in Uganda had a lower chance of developing the skin allergy condition eczema if their moms had helminth worm infections while pregnant. The research is in the journal Pediatric Allergy and Immunology.

现在,一个新的研究支持了这个卫生学假说:乌干达的婴儿很少有机会患上湿疹这种皮肤过敏症,前提是他们母亲在怀孕期间肚子里面有蛔虫。这个研究发表在儿科过敏反应和免疫学杂志上。 A 2005 study showed that the kids of women treated for worm infections had more eczema. Twenty-five hundred pregnant women took part in this follow-up research. Some got one worm-killing drug. Others took a different drug. And a third group received a placebo. One drug nearly doubled the kids’ risk of eczema. The other more than doubled the odds.

一个2005年的研究表明,治疗了蛔虫感染的妈妈们的孩子湿疹的发病率较高。2500名怀孕妇女参加了这项跟踪研究。一些人吃了一种杀虫药。另外一些人吃另外一种杀虫药。第三群人吃的则是安慰剂。吃其中一种杀虫药的妈妈所生的孩子患有湿疹的风险翻倍了。吃另外一种杀虫药的妈妈所生孩子患有湿疹的风险翻倍还要多。 Helminth worm infections can give the mothers symptoms such as mild anemia or stomach pain and vomiting. Although many people have no symptoms at all. The scientists say more research is needed before they would recommend not treating worm infections. But the work lends additional support to the idea that hygiene may be a balancing act rather than a goal.

蛔虫感染能让妈妈们患上一些症状,比如轻度贫血,胃疼,呕吐。但是也有一些人完全没有任何症状。科学家们说,在建议妈妈们不治疗蛔虫感染以前,还必须要做更多的研究。但是这项研究对这样的观念提供了又一支撑,那就是:卫生是平衡手段,而不是目的。

孕期的”友好细菌”可以预防儿童湿疹

Mothers who drink milk containing \’friendly bacteria\’ (probiotics) while pregnant and breastfeeding may reduce their child\’s risk of developing eczema, reports a new study. And if their child does develop eczema, it may be less severe.

最新研究表明,母亲在怀孕和哺乳期间喝含有\”友好细菌\”(益生菌)的牛奶可能减少她们的孩子患湿疹的危险。即使她们的孩子患湿疹,病况也相对较轻。 What do we know already?

那么我们已经知道了什么? Probiotics are tiny organisms, usually bacteria, which occur naturally in some foods (such as yoghurt) and are added to others (such as milk and soya drinks). They are also available as supplements.

益生菌是一类微生物,通常是自然生长在某些食物中的细菌(如酸奶)和其他饮料(如牛奶和豆制品饮料)。他们也做为食品的添加剂。 Probiotics are often called \’friendly bacteria\’ because they help with digestion and protect against some types of harmful bacteria. Studies also show they may help the immune system to develop and reduce the risk of allergies, which occur when the immune system overreacts to something harmless, like pollen. This has led researchers to wonder whether probiotics might be used to prevent some allergy-related conditions, such as eczema.

益生菌通常被称作“友好的细菌”是因为他们有助于消化并阻止一些有害细菌的侵入。研究显示他们还可能增加人体免疫力和减少那些因为免疫系统对花粉等某些无害生物的过激反应而产生过敏的危险。这导致研究者对是否益生菌可能被用来阻止某些环境过敏感到好奇,如湿疹。 Eczema is a skin condition that makes patches of skin become dry, red and itchy. It is very common, particularly among children. About 16 in 100 children in the UK have eczema.

湿疹是一种皮肤病,它使皮肤产生斑点、变得干燥、鲜红和瘙痒。这是一种非常常见的疾病,尤其对于儿童。在英国大约在100名儿童中就有16个患湿疹。 Some studies have found that children have a lower risk of eczema if they are given probiotics as babies. However, these studies have looked mainly at children who have a family history of eczema and are at high risk, rather than children in general. Also, few studies have explored whether giving mothers probiotics while pregnant or breastfeeding might have a beneficial effect.

一些研究发现在婴儿时期给予益生菌的儿童患湿疹的危险要小。可是,这些研究并不全面,它主要针对了那些有湿疹家族史的儿童并且这些儿童有更大可能患湿疹。另外,少数研究发现在孕期或哺乳期给予母亲益生菌可能得到有益的结果。 To help fill these gaps, Norwegian researchers have now done a study of 415 pregnant women who were planning to breastfeed their babies. Half of the women drank milk with probiotics from the 36th week of their pregnancy until their baby was 3 months old. The other half drank identical milk that contained no probiotics. The researchers then followed up the women two years later to find out whether their children had eczema.

为了填补这些空白,挪威研究人员对415位打算哺乳的已怀孕妇女进行了研究。一半的妈妈从她们怀孕的第36周到她们的宝宝3个月止喝带有益生菌的牛奶,另一半所喝的奶中则没有益生菌。两年后研究人员对这些妈妈进行跟踪调查是否她们的孩子患过湿疹。 What does the new study say?

我们看看新研究结果说了些什么? Children born to women who drank the probiotic milk were half as likely to have eczema at age 2 than those whose mothers drank the regular milk. And the children in the probiotics group who did develop eczema had less severe symptoms overall. These results didn\’t change when the researchers factored in other things that might have affected the children\’s risk of having eczema and other allergies, such as whether their mother smoked, whether they were breastfed for only a short time, and whether they started eating food before age 6 months.

那些喝了带有益生菌牛奶的妇女的孩子在两岁前患有湿疹是喝平常牛奶的一半。并且益生菌组的所患有湿疹的症状总体上要比非益生菌组轻。当研究人员把其他可能影响儿童患湿疹和其他过敏因素考虑进去后,如母亲是否吸烟,是否他们仅仅短时间接受哺乳还有是否他们在6个月前开始给予食物等,这个结果并未改变。 Interestingly, the children most likely to benefit from probiotics were those with no family history of eczema or related allergies. This suggests, say the researchers, that widespread use of probiotics by pregnant and breastfeeding women might be worthwhile for curbing rates of childhood eczema.

有趣的是,从益生菌中得益的儿童好像更多地是那些没有湿疹家族史或相关过敏症的家庭。这建议,研究人员说,在孕期和哺乳期的妇女广泛使用益生菌来抑制儿童患湿疹的几率是值得的。 How reliable are the findings?

这个发现有多少可信度? These findings should be quite reliable as the study was a randomised, double-blind controlled trial. This is the best type of study for finding out whether a treatment works.

因为这个研究是随机的,双重盲目控制的实验,所以这些发现应该是非常可靠的。这是最好的研究方法来验证治疗方式是否有效。 However, one-third of the women dropped out of the study before it finished. This is slightly more than the researchers anticipated, which weakens their results, although not substantially.

可是,三分之一的妇女在研究结束前就退出了。这有点高于研究者们的期望值,这多少减弱了他们的研究结果,虽然不是很多。 Where does the study come from?

研究从何而来? The study was done by researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. It was funded by the Norwegian Research Council, Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics AS and a research foundation called Nidarosfondet. The study appeared in the British Journal of Dermatology, which is owned by the British Association of Dermatologists.

这项研究是由挪威科技大学的研究人员完成的。它是由挪威研究委员会,西门子医疗诊断协会和一所名叫Nidarosfondet的研究基金会资助。这项研究刊登在由英国皮肤病协会主办的英国皮肤学报。 What does this mean for me?

这对我意味着什么? This study adds to a growing body of research showing that probiotics may be useful in preventing eczema in young children. You may find this interesting if you are pregnant or have recently had a baby. And the idea of taking probiotics yourself – rather than giving them to your infant – may also appeal to you.

这项研究增加到研究正在生长的身体来显示益生菌可能对幼儿时期防止湿疹很有用。你会发现这很有趣儿,如果你正怀孕或者刚刚有了一个婴儿。并且采取你自己服用益生菌的想法——而不是给你的婴儿——也许对你同样有吸引力。 However, studies have yet to reveal exactly how probiotics might help prevent eczema and which \’friendly bacteria\’ work best. This study used three probiotics that have had positive results in other research: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12.

无论怎样,研究已经正确揭示了益生菌是怎样可能帮助防止湿疹的并且哪个“友好的细菌”起到最好的作用。这项研究用了在其他研究中得到的好结果的三种益生菌:鼠李糖乳酸杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG)、嗜酸乳杆菌(Lactobacillus acidophilus) La-5和动物双歧杆菌乳亚种Bb-12。 What should I do now?

我们现在应该做什么呢? If you\’re pregnant or breastfeeding and interested in taking probiotics, talk to your doctor or midwife. Although these \’friendly bacteria\’ are unlikely to cause serious side effects, it\’s best to check before making any changes to your diet when you\’re pregnant.

如果你正在孕期或者哺乳期并且对服用益生菌感兴趣,请告诉你的医生或者助产士。虽然这些“友好细菌”看起来并没有严重的不良影响,在你怀孕期间对日常饮食有任何改变还是确认一下为好。

抗生素很危险,杀益生菌!引起抗生素抗药性

抗生素过量用药会导致细菌的耐药性

《柳叶刀》杂志报告,抗生素对因轻微胸部感染引起的持续咳嗽患者治疗无效。

在12个欧洲国家大约2000病人填写“疾病”日志。

研究发现,病人用抗生素治疗症状的严重程度和持续时间与服用安慰剂治疗的没有什么不同。

但专家警告说,如果怀疑是肺炎,由于控制疾病的严重程度还应使用抗生素。

南安普顿大学教授保罗•利特尔领导了这项研究,他说:“对疑似未患肺炎的患者却使用抗生素阿莫西林治疗呼吸道感染非但不利反而有害。

“按照初级护理处方过量使用抗生素,特别是治疗效果无效的情况下,会导致出现耐药性且有副作用,如腹泻、皮疹和呕吐。

“我们的研究结果表明,患者自己就会恢复好。但抗生素对少数患者会有效,问题是如何找出受益于抗生素的人,仍具挑战性。”

之前的研究是否抗生素对治疗胸部感染有益,症状包括呼吸短促、虚弱、高烧、咳嗽和疲劳,产生了相互矛盾的结果——特别是老年人,胸部感染会进一步导致并发症。

本研究随机分为两组患者,一组接受抗生素治疗,另一组接受安慰剂治疗,一种使用糖片的惰性治疗形式,一天三次一个疗程服用七天。

据研究报道发现两组在严重程度和持续时间上几乎没有差异。据研究对于老年患者也是一样,研究了近三分之一的老年人(那些年龄在60岁或60岁以上的老年人)。

据研究报道,那些服用抗生素的比那些服用安慰剂的所出现的副作用要多,包括恶心、皮疹和腹泻。

耐药性

肺部感染,是病人去看医生的最常见问题之一。

英国肺脏基金会会员尼克•霍普金森博士认为,这项研究有助于全科医生向病人提供抗生素咨询服务。

他说:“一些患者胸部轻微感染就会要求开处方服药——该项研究可以帮助医生们建议患者服用处方抗生素可能不是最佳的治疗方案。

“最轻微的胸部感染会自行解决,不需要抗生素——主要是由病毒引起。那些患有轻微感染的患者如果症状没有改善就停用抗生素。

“这项研究旨在鼓励和支持医生们所做的。”

过量服用抗生素会导致所感染细菌的耐药性。

皇家学院全科医生迈克尔•摩尔博士,也是这项研究的合著作者,他也表示:“重要的是全科医生们清楚地知道,他们应不应该给病人开抗生素,来降低出现细菌区域的耐药性。

“这项研究支持了国家健康和临床研究所所采取的方法的指导方针,患有急性下呼吸道感染、全科医生可以再次保证非疑似肺炎患者,没有抗生素一样会恢复,无论开处方服药与否疾病可能都会持续大约三个星期。”

欧洲国家包括比利时、英国、法国和德国于2007年11月和2010年4月进行了该项研究。

观察了2061名持续咳嗽患者,持续咳嗽超过28天且呼吸系统感染,如疑似支气管炎。

如果由于没有及时治疗,程度较严重的那些患上肺炎的患者排除在该项研究之外。

参与者每天完成病志记录,病情持续时间并评价病情的严重性,症状包括咳嗽、呼吸困难、胸痛、胸闷或流鼻涕。

除非注明,文章均为国外新鲜资讯/原创编译/投稿,欢迎转载!转载请以链接形式标明本文地址,谢谢。

儿童食物过敏:元凶何在?

旁白

Like any good mother, ever since my son Eden was diagnosed with life-threatening food allergies, I\’ve been trying to find out why. The Hygiene Hypothesis is a popular theory for the increase in food allergies. In 2004, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease followed the medical records of 835 children from birth to age one, documenting any fever-related episodes. At six to seven years old more than half of the children were evaluated for their sensitivity to common allergens such as dust mites, ragweed and cats. Of the children who didn\’t experience a fever during their first year, 50 percent showed allergic sensitivity. Of those who had one fever, the percentage dropped to 46 percent. But of the children who had two or more fevers only 31 percent showed allergic sensitivity.

如同任何称职的妈妈一样,自从我的儿子艾登被诊断出患有可能危及生命的食物过敏症起,我就一直在苦苦寻找病因。很多人接受“卫生假说”(Hygiene Hypothesis)来解释食物过敏症的增加现象。(译者注:“卫生假说”在医学领域研究哮喘病潜在病因中一直占主流地位。该假说认为,儿童时代的感染及环境因素,如食物、空气的污染导致了哮喘病的过敏体质。)2004年,美国过敏症及传染性疾病研究所对835名儿童从出生开始,到1周岁期间进行了医学跟踪。对任何和发烧有关的事件都予以记录。到6至7岁时,这835名儿童中,过半的人都有各种各样的过敏症,对常见的过敏原如尘螨,豚草和猫等产生过敏。在1周岁内从未发烧过的孩子中,50%患上了过敏症。1周岁内发烧一次的孩子中,有46%的有过敏症。而那些1周岁内曾经历两次或以上发烧的孩子,患上过敏症的仅仅占31%。 So does this mean that children might have fewer allergies if society allows them to get dirtier and sicker? But how much sicker? What about the advances modern medicine has made in eradicating childhood diseases like Polio? And how much dirtier? Do we want our children exposed to more parasites? The Helminthes Hypothesis is nearly identical to the Hygiene Hypothesis but it focuses exclusively on parasites. Helminthes are the worms that live in the human intestinal tract.

这是否说明,如果孩子们生活中不太卫生的环境中,并经常得病的话,患上过敏症的机会就会降低呢?那要得几次病才算?何况现代医学技术的发展已完全能根治不少儿童疾病,如小儿麻痹。还有,怎么才算不太卫生的环境?要让我们的孩子多暴露在有寄生虫的环境中?“蠕虫假说”和“卫生假说”大同小异,只是这一假说单独强调了寄生虫的作用,它们生活在人类的肠胃内。 In the 1980\’s researchers studied Venezuelan Indians and discovered that within those who lived in the rainforest and were also heavily infected with worms only 10 percent had allergies. But among the wealthier Venezuelan Indians who lived in cities and were only lightly infected with worms, 43 percent had allergies. A \”Worm vs. Wealth\” theory is the Yang to the Yin of the Hygiene Hypothesis: Maybe we need more exposure to parasites to balance our reduced exposure to bacteria and viruses. Either way, clean water and food, antibiotics, reduced exposure to parasites, animals, viruses and infectious diseases may have caused our progressive worldwide allergies. But these ideas don\’t offer obvious solutions to parents. A few years ago, a well-known research immunologist injected himself with hookworms and reduced his allergic symptoms (shudder).

在上世纪80年代,人们曾对委内瑞拉的印第安人做过研究。发现那些生活在雨林中,并被各种蠕虫严重感染过的人群中,只有10%有过敏症。但那些富裕的,居住在城市的印第安人,也较少受到各种蠕虫感染,却有43%患有各种过敏症。“蠕虫和富裕”理论是“卫生假说”的阴阳两个方面。也许我们真该多接触点寄生虫,来平衡一下我们越来越少接触细菌和病毒的状况。各种生活方式,如清洁的食物和水,抗生素,减少和寄生虫,动物,病毒和传染病的接触,也许引起了全球范围过敏症的蔓延。也许这些理念还不足以提供父母们对孩子过敏症给出一个明确的解决之道。很多年前,一位知名的免疫学家就曾给自己注射钩虫,来减轻自己的过敏症状。(全身颤栗的症状) While there isn\’t strong evidence suggesting that an allergic child would benefit from exposure to his allergens or, say, from an occasional lick of a New York City subway pole (dramatic shudder), when people ask me why Eden has allergies and I answer, \”Well, most doctors favor the Hygiene Hypothesis,\” their next question predictably involves hand wipes. How to segue towards the less inviting explanation, \”Well, some scientists believe our world is too clean!\” Hmmm? Sure, then I could then launch into a monologue about contaminated water except my own kitchen counter is never without a full pitcher of filtered water with its reassuring \”filter-change-reminder-sticker.\”

同时,并没有有力证据证明,过敏症的孩子多接触过敏源会对缓解病症有利。当人们问起儿子艾登过敏症的原因时,我回答说:“好吧,大部分医生把过敏症的发生归咎于卫生假说。”他们接下来的提问一定和洗手有关。然后会继续解释道,“有些科学家相信,我们生活的世界太过干净了!”接着就听到我一个人滔滔不绝地谈论被污染的水。当然在我家里的厨房里,一直有一大桶的纯净水,上面贴着标签,提醒我何时跟换滤芯。 My friends are open to switching their hand soap to Burt\’s Bees All Natural, but balk at the idea of unfiltered water and unwashed hands. Some parents ask me, \”What about all those pesticides? I only buy organic! Don\’t you?\” Well, no, not always. Neither of my children\’s diet is organically stellar. But I get it. I want to control my children\’s health too. I want to benefit from medical progress while circumventing nature\’s backlash. And the hard truth is if I had let Eden play in the mud like a baby farm animal, he still may have gotten allergies. Medical theories address trends and individuals are complicated by their genetics and the particular circumstances of their lives.

我的朋友很爽快地开始改用天然肥皂洗手了,但对饮用没有过滤的水和不洗手仍心存疑虑。有些父母们问我,“那些杀虫剂可怎么办?我只购买有机食品,你呢?”我不会只买有机食品。我孩子吃的食物没有一样是纯有机食品。当然我明白,我会保证我孩子健康的。我希望从医学进步中受益,而避免和自然对抗。可铁的事实就是,即使我哪天让儿子在泥地里疯玩,他仍会得过敏症。医学理论只能提供一个大的趋势,但每个个体由于基因和生活环境不同,而变得十分复杂。 Other allergy theories abound. The increased pediatric vaccination schedule has been called out as a culprit in causing the increase in food allergies. Perhaps vaccination has led to overstimulation of the immune system? Perhaps the ingredients in vaccinations produce a delayed allergic response? Other voices speak out against our industrial and agricultural practices. Perhaps pesticides, cross breeding and genetic engineering are responsible for our children\’s \”toxic overload.\”

其他关于过敏症成因的理论还有很多。有人认为,现在名目繁多的儿童疫苗接种是引起食物过敏症的祸首。也许他们认为疫苗过度刺激了人体的免疫系统?也许疫苗中的某些成分导致了过敏反应时间延长?有些观点则抨击当今的工业和农业生产方式。也许杀虫剂,杂交育种和基因工程使得我们的孩子吸收“过多的有毒物质”。 Perhaps all those alterations to our food render it unrecognizable to our digestive tract? Every factor from cooking methods, socioeconomic status, gender, exposure to pool chlorine, fetal head size, early exposure to foods, late exposure to foods, country of birth origin has been examined in terms of its contribution to food allergies. While some of those circumstances have proven to be instrumental, none have been proven to be the sole determining factor.

也许我们的消化器官对这些面目全非的食物已无法分辨。人们对很多因素,如烹饪方法,社会经济地位,性别,是否接触过含氯的泳池,胎儿头围大小,进食时间的早晚,出生地和过敏症的关系都进行了检视。其中一些因素已证明确实对过敏症的发生有作用,但至今未找到一种单独成因。 Meanwhile I\’ve listened to many mothers assume the burden of their children\’s allergies by citing their maternal diet. Yet an expecting mother\’s diet hasn\’t been proven to cause their children\’s food allergies. We parents want to know why things happen to our children. We are ready to bear the guilt. Bring it on! You can\’t handle the guilt! I can! When Eden was born he was given antibiotics to clear excess fluid from his lungs. The NICU doctors advised us to permit it. They said it was probably best. Was that it? Did those antibiotics tip Eden\’s first domino?

同时,我也听到很多妈妈们给我罗列她们怀孕期间的饮食,想当然地认为,她们是怀孕期间的饮食引起了孩子现在的过敏症,然而至今没有证据表明,怀孕期间的饮食,和孩子食物过敏症发生有关。我们却满怀负疚感,我也有类似的感情。当儿子艾登出生时,当时观察室的医生建议我允许给他注射抗生素,来清除肺部过多的积液。医生们说这可能是最好的方案。是不是那次注射抗生素引起了他的过敏症? Ah. But then there is guilt\’s evil twin — blame. In 2008, six years after my first pediatrician insisted that Eden wasn\’t vomiting incessantly and allergically to his milk-based formula, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a report defining Eden as an infant at risk based on our family history of allergies. Under those guidelines my pediatrician would have been obligated to instruct me to use \”an extensively hydrolyzed formula\” without question. (Again, she did not.) When I think about that AAP report many times I swallow a raw and unending frustration. Was that it? Then again, Eden was vaccinated on the recommended schedule while his food allergies were emerging. Was that it?

当然除了负疚感,还有责备。2008年,在我儿子第一个儿科医生坚称,艾登并没有持续性呕吐问题,也没有配方奶过敏症后的第六年,美国儿科学会给我儿子出具了一份报告,报告认为,因为家族都有过敏历史,所以孩子在婴儿期有过敏症的风险。其实当初孩子的大夫就有义务指导我应该给他大量喂食“水解配方奶粉”,这是毫无疑问的。(但是,她还是没有。)儿科学会的报告让我反复思考很久,让我感到无尽的失望。这算怎么回事?而在他过敏症日渐严重时,还按计划接种各种疫苗。这样做对吗? Maybe allergy parents think we gave our children the wrong food or too many antibiotics. Maybe we wake up in the middle of night wondering if we should have kept them away from the cats or the peanut proteins we leaked through our breast milk. Maybe we did something bad that was supposed to be good for our children. But as the medical community looks for answers, I continue to look for ways to help my son live well — odds I can control.

也许父母们认为给他们的孩子吃错了东西或用了太多的抗生素才会这样。也许我们会半夜惊醒,想到或许应该让孩子不要接触家里的宠物猫;抑或是在母乳喂养中,母亲曾吃过花生,而后花生蛋白进入了母乳;也许我们认为做了一些不利于孩子健康的事,实际上是对孩子有利的?医疗机构也在寻求导致过敏症发生的原因,我也在不断摸索能让儿子更健康的办法,去控制各种不利因素。 Follow Susan Weissman on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/susanweissman

少少不干不净或许是件好事儿!

有点儿不干净可能是一件好事

一些专家说,人体为保护自身健康,必须学会承受部分细菌存在。

九月九日《健康日新闻》记者丹尼斯·汤普森报导,根据美国疾病控制和预防中心的资料,良好的卫生习惯,使人们免除了无数细菌和病毒的感染,拯救了千百万人的生命。

但严格遵守良好的卫生习惯,越来越多的被受关注,虽然保持卫生是保护健康的宝贵手段,但却给人类造成其他形式的疾病。

Proponents of the \”hygiene hypothesis\” believe that reduced exposure to bacteria, viruses and parasites have impaired the immune system\’s ability to properly respond to environmental challenges.

Researchers have identified the hygiene hypothesis as a possible cause or exacerbating factor in a number of illnesses and medical problems, said Dr. Graham A.W. Rook, a professor in the department of infection at the Centre for Clinical Microbiology at the University College London. These include:

“卫生假说”的支持者们认为,减少对细菌、病毒和寄生虫的暴露,会损伤免疫系统妥善应对环境挑战的能力。

英国伦敦大学临床学院微生物学中心感染科教授Rook博士说,在某些疾病和医疗问题中,研究人员已经确定“卫生假说”可能导致或加剧疾病的因素。包括下列病患:

· Severe allergic reactions.

· Gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn\’s disease.

· Autoimmune disorders, such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

\”The evidence for all this is very, very powerful,\” Rook said. \”It\’s very easy to show if you live on a farm or keep a dog, you\’re less likely to have these disorders. If you are the youngest child in a big family, you\’re less likely to have these disorders.\”

•严重的过敏反应。

•胃肠功能紊乱,如炎症性肠道疾病和克罗恩病。

•自身免疫性疾病,如1型糖尿病和多发性硬化症。

“所有这些疾病的证据是非常,非常有力的,”Rook说,“这很容易证明,如果你住在农场或养狗,你就不太可能有这些疾病的,如果你是一个大家庭中最小的孩子,你也不太可能有这些疾病。”

The hygiene hypothesis has its roots in the theory of evolution, he said.

\”The bottom line is organisms that were present in mud, untreated water and feces were with us right from the start of humanity,\” Rook explained. Proponents of the hygiene hypothesis believe that the human body adapted to these organisms and began using them as a means of training the immune system.

\”What has happened over the course of evolution is, because these bugs had to be tolerated, they came to activate the tolerance of the immune system,\” Rook said. \”They are the police force that keeps the immune system from becoming trigger-happy. Basically, the immune system is now attacking things it shouldn\’t be attacking.\”

他说,卫生假说是有进化理论根据的。

Rook博士解释说,“从人类诞生开始,存在于泥土、未经处理的水和粪便中的微生物就伴随我们一起生存。”卫生假说的支持者认为,人体适应这些微生物,并开始利用他们作为训练免疫系统的一种方法。

“在进化过程中,因为人体必须承受这些微生物,以此激活人体免疫系统的承受能力,”Rook说。 “他们是警察部队,抑制免疫系统的快乐扳击。基本上,免疫系统现在反常攻击的对象,它不应该攻击。”

Dr. Mitchell H. Grayson, an associate professor of pediatrics at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, said that the hygiene hypothesis is most strongly linked to an increase in allergic diseases and asthma.

\”It\’s thought to have something to do with the way your immune system develops and is programmed,\” Grayson said. Bacteria in the environment teach an immune response to allergens that is more moderate and less severe. \”In the absence of these bacteria, the immune system is thought to become more prone to allergic disease,\” he said.

威斯康新医学院儿科副教授格雷森博士说,“卫生假说”与过敏性疾病和哮喘的相关性越来越强。

“现在认为卫生假说与我们的免疫系统的发生和完善有关,”格雷森说,环境中的细菌诱导免疫系统对过敏原产生较为温和的和不太严重的反应。 “如果没有这些细菌存在,免疫系统变得更容易出现过敏性疾病,”他说。

Rook said that other researchers have used the hygiene hypothesis to show that parasitic infections can aid in the treatment of such conditions as multiple sclerosis and Crohn\’s disease.

Rook说,其他研究人员利用卫生假说治疗疾病的实践结果表明,寄生虫感染能帮助治疗多发性硬化病和克罗恩病等免疫性疾病。

Argentinean researchers, for instance, have shown that the presence of intestinal parasites can moderate the progression of multiple sclerosis. Follow-up studies indicated that, when people were treated for their parasitic infection, they had a relapse of MS.

A research team at the University of Iowa found similar results related to Crohn\’s disease, showing that intestinal parasites helped regulate the autoimmune reaction that causes the intestinal disorder.

例如,阿根廷研究人员证实,肠道寄生虫可以减缓多发性硬化症的进展。后续研究表明,当寄生虫感染被清除后,多发性硬化症即复发。

美国爱荷华州大学的一个研究小组研究克罗恩病时也获得类似的结论,即肠道寄生虫有助于调节导致肠道疾病的自体免疫反应。

On the flip side, such revelations carry risks. Doctors are concerned that some might use the hygiene hypothesis as an excuse to abandon good hygiene, causing a surge in diseases such as dysentery and cholera.

\”Public health and sanitation has been the single greatest improvement in our life expectancy,\” Grayson said. \”I would not recommend living less cleanly.\”

On the other hand, tolerance of a little dirt here and there won\’t hurt.

但另一面,卫生假说的启示也存在风险。医生们担心某些人以此为借口,放弃良好的卫生习惯,导致痢疾和霍乱等疾病激增。

“公共卫生与健康一直是增加我们预期寿命最大的促进因素,”格雷森说。 “我不会推荐生活可以不那么干净。”

另一方面,经常在某些地方有点儿不干净也不会有什么伤害。

\”If your kids come back from the garden with a little mud on their hands, it\’s not a bad thing,\” Rook said. \”They don\’t necessarily have to wash their hands before picking up a sandwich.\”

“如果你的孩子从花园回来时,手上有点儿泥土,那不是一件坏事,”Rook说。 “他们并非必须洗手后才可拿三明治。”

In general, though, it\’s wise to maintain good overall hygiene, he said, and wait for the scientists to figure all this out. Larger studies are underway to determine the exact mechanism by which bacteria and parasites are causing the immune system to moderate its response, Rook said.

\”We need to figure out how to replace what is good from the microbiological environment while maintaining the advances of good hygiene so we can get the best of both worlds,\” Rook said.

说,还要等待科学家研究出更明确的结论。正在进行更大规模的研究,以确定细菌和寄生虫诱发免疫系统调适免疫反应的确切机制。

Rook说:“我们需要弄清楚如何保持良好的卫生优势,又同时承受一个什么样的微生物环境,使我们可以得到两全其美。”

有机牛肉及乳制品不含激素和抗生素吗?

 

是的,多数是不含的。在有机食品规程中,包含抗生素和生长激素的合成兽药多数被禁用。另外,有机肉类和乳制品生产商必须仅使用有机饲料饲喂,而且必须避免其被抗生素和激素污染。如果动物生病,生产商要给它们提供治疗使其恢复健康。不过,治疗中一旦使用了抗生素,就不允许给肉类、牛奶或奶酪贴上有机食品标签。

这些规程是美国农业部有机食品生产法的一个重要组成部分。在非有机肉类和乳制品产业中,激素(尤其是雌激素)被广泛用于促进生长及增加产量。而且,抗生素(常以粉末形式添加到饲料中)作为常规防病措施被用在所有动物身上。

联邦有机食品规程禁止在有资质的有机肉类和乳制品中使用多数含抗生素和激素的合成兽药,这对保障产品的整体质量大有助益。当然,牛自身也有激素(包括雌激素),所以即使是有机肉类及乳制品中也会有一些激素残留(这方面还未见相关研究),不过在合格的有机食品中这些激素应该是很微量的。另外,合格的有机肉类和乳制品中应该是没有抗生素残留的,这通常会出现在非有机食品中。

实用小建议:如果你想减少对肉类和乳制品中激素和抗生素的接触,有资质的有机食品是你的最好选择。吃动物脂(从天然饲养、牧地放养的动物中提取,不含激素,不含抗生素等).

http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=faq&dbid=48